Understanding that the mitigation efforts to curb COVID-19 ultimately fall on countries and territories at destination. Countries should have appropriate public health and health systems capacities, particularly at points of entry to test, isolate and treat cases, and quarantine their contacts, and exchange information and data internationally, as appropriate. The WHO updated COVID-19 Strategy has outlined objectives in relation to sectors beyond health, such as foreign affairs, finance, education, transport, travel and tourism, public works, water and sanitation, environment, social protection and agriculture. There is no “zero risk” when considering the potential importation or exportation of cases in the context of international travel.
Therefore, thorough and continuous risk assessment and management will help identify, reduce and mitigate those risks, while balancing the socio-economic consequences of travel measures against potential adverse public health consequences. Many countries have halted some or all international travel since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic but now have plans to re-open travel. This document outlines key considerations for national health authorities when considering or implementing the gradual return to international travel operations.
Countries should maintain or strengthen, as necessary, their capacities at Points of Entry for the COVID-19 response. Adapted procedures for handling baggage, cargo, containers, conveyances, goods and postal parcels should be available and clearly communicated.
Beyond the scientific considerations, there are ethical, legal and human rights aspects related to privacy of personal data, medical confidentiality, potential risk of falsification or engagement in risky behaviour, stigma and discrimination. The form should include relevant contact details of passengers who may need to be reached after travel when, for instance, they are identified as a possible contact of a case. It is recommended that such a form be filled during the flight to avoid crowds at the arrival. Authorities may also require arriving passengers to download and utilize a national COVID-control App.
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Countries also need to ensure capacities for ship inspection and issuance of ship sanitation certificates within the framework of the IHR. WHO guidance on the management of ill travellers at points of entry and other relevant guidance, such as operational considerations for airlines and other transport operators , should be followed. Timely and accurate communication on changes in international travel should target the general public, travellers, operators of the transport sector, health authorities and operators in other relevant sectors.
- Crowded conditions in shelters and other shared residences facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, including COVID-19.
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Maternal and Child health helps to protect and promote the health of mother food allergies and new born child. Since new born child are much more prone to disease and need adequate nutrition maternal and child health helps mother by providing them with proper education about taking care of their child.
Health communications is the process of educating people about health education. Since different group of people have different health needs we have to alter the health education to suit the need of each people. The health communication hence plays a major role in improving public health. In public health rather than considering the health of the individual we will consider the health of the entire community or certain population. It mainly focus on preventing infectious disease, removing contaminants from food and drinking water, reducing pollutions, by public health policies etc since they can affect the entire community.
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Countries should regularly reiterate the risk assessment process and review the capacity of their public health and other relevant sectors while gradually resuming international travels. In this process countries should also consider new knowledge about the virus and its epidemiology by consulting updated WHO scientific briefs. The use of “Immunity certificates” for international travel in the context of COVID-19 is not currently supported by scientific evidence and therefore not recommended by WHO . More evidence is needed to understand the effectiveness of rapid SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests. For more information, please refer to WHO scientific brief “Immunity passports” in the context of COVID-19, which will be updated as new evidence becomes available.