He then advanced to Gifasis (an eastern tributary of the Indus).

He then advanced to Gifasis (an eastern tributary of the Indus).

The conquest of India was facilitated by the constant enmity between the Indian dynasties, which Alexander skillfully took advantage of.

After crossing the Indus and Hydaspes (a tributary of the Indus), he defeated the mighty king of the West Indies, Porus (in battle with him, Macedonian soldiers first encountered the fighting Indian elephants). The last two colonies were founded here – Nicaea and Bucephalus (the latter is named after the favorite horse of Alexander, who died in these places). He then advanced to Gifasis (an eastern tributary of the Indus). Alexander thought to move on to conquer the Ganges valley, but his army was exhausted from a long exhausting journey. In addition, Alexander’s dissatisfaction at the top of the army, which did not tolerate Eastern policy and his plans to "make the borders of the kingdom the boundaries of the whole earth," had long been growing.

Against Alexander since 330 BC. Conspiracies began to emerge both among the old veteran commanders and among the noble Macedonian youth, the "pages." Alexander tried to suppress the opposition in the army by the most severe measures. To do this, he did not stop before the destruction of the most deserving and closest to him.

In the camp at Gifasis, the army and its commanders refused to continue the conquest. After spending three days in complete solitude in his tent, Alexander finally gave the order to build ships on the shores of Hydaspes to transport his army to the shores of the Indian Ocean.

The return began in 326 BC. BC and took place in very difficult conditions. Reaching the Indus Delta, Alexander equipped one part of the army, led by Narch, a still little-known sea route along the ocean to the Persian Gulf, and with the other he moved by land through the scorching deserts of Gedrosia. The campaign ended in 325 BC. BC in Babylon.

During the Eastern Campaign (334-325 BC) and after it in 324 BC. Alexander sometimes tried to unite the Greco-Macedonians with the Persians in very naive ways. He encouraged his soldiers to marry Persian women and once arranged the wedding of 10,000 couples at once. Alexander himself, according to the custom of the Persian kings, married two more Persian princesses. In public administration, at court, in the army, the influence of the eastern nobility increased. However, it should also be noted that at the same time Alexander Hellenized the Persians; 30,000 Persian boys studied the military equipment of the Macedonians, the Greek language and Macedonian customs.

However, opposition to Alexander’s eastern policy grew and spread. In the Description, on the Tigris River, in 324 BC. a real soldier’s revolt broke out. Alexander brutally suppressed it, killing 13 instigators, and began to form an army consisting mainly of Persians. But he also had to make some concessions, promising that the Macedonians would have an advantage over the Persians.

Alexander made Babylon the capital of his vast state. Here he began to develop activities for the further organization of this state and the preparation of a new campaign in the West. Sudden death from malignant malaria in 323 put an end to this activity.

The significance of the conquest of the Persian state was very great. It contributed to the convergence of the economy and culture of the West and the East. To establish a more organic connection between them, the establishment of several dozen cities ("Alexandria") was of great importance, which were to become centers of unification of Greeks and Macedonians with the local population and mutual exchange of cultural achievements.

At the same time, these phenomena must not be forgotten that the result of the conquest of the East was not only the destruction of the Persian state, but also the establishment of a new domination based on the brutal enslavement of the local population by Greek- Macedonians.

Progressive changes as a result of the fall of Persia did not mean an improvement in the situation of the masses. The former oppression of the Persian state was replaced by the subtle, much heavier exploitation of the conquerors.

However, the weakness and short-livedness of the state of Alexander the Great did not prevent the emergence of new socio-political relations on its vast territory, which were a further stage in the development of ancient slave-owning society. A Hellenistic world arose on the ruins of Alexander’s state.

literature

Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar; Cromwell; Richelieu; Napoleon I; Bismarck: Biogr. narratives / NF Boldyrev (comp., general ed. and afterword). – Chelyabinsk: Ural, 1995. – 537p. Boz Patra. Alexander the Great’s Strategic Art: Out of Time: Lessons from the Builder of the Greatest Empire: Per. from English .. – Moscow: Olymp-Business, 2005. – XVIII, 249p. Spivak Igor Oleksandrovich. Alexander the Great and Zoroastrianism: author’s ref. dis … cand. ist. Science: 07.00. 02 / NAS of Ukraine; Institute of Oriental Studies. A. Krymskoho – K., 2007. – 18p. Tkachov Yuriy Gennadiyovych. A plot about Alexander the Great and his modifications in world literature: Dis … Cand. philol. Science: 10.01. 05 / Chernivtsi state. 123helpme.me Univ. Yu. Fedkovich. – Chernivtsi, 1996 .– 186l. Uspensky Fedor Ivanovich. History of the Byzantine Empire: The period of the Macedonian dynasty (867-1057) / LV Litvinova (comp., Preparation of the text). – M .: Mysl, 1997. – 527p.

09/10/2012

Eastern campaign of Alexander the Great. Abstract

Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) is one of the most popular figures of antiquity

The scale of his conquests, which stretched from the Aegean Sea to the Indus Basin and from the Libyan Desert to the Caspian Sea, and the short time during which they were made (about 10 years), made an unforgettable impression on contemporaries and made him a hero of legends and tales.

After killing his enemies in Greece, Alexander began to prepare for his father’s planned Persian campaign.

The forces with which Alexander in 334 BC. BC moved to Asia, were generally small (30 thousand infantry, 5 thousand cavalry and 160 ships). But Persia under the last Achaemenids quite justified the comparison of it with an ear on clay feet. Oppressed by taxes, military service, and the arbitrariness of the rulers, the peoples conquered by Persia revolted in an attempt to free themselves from Persian rule. The liberation movement was especially strong in Egypt.

In 334 BC. Having gathered all his forces in the city of Amphipolis on the Thracian coast, Alexander moved to Hellespont. Alexander’s Macedonian army also included Greek troops (about 7,000 soldiers). After crossing the Hellespont, Alexander’s army defeated the Persian forces near the river Granik, which flows into the Propontis. After this victory, Alexander easily took control of the cities of Asia Minor: most of the cities of Asia Minor surrendered to Alexander voluntarily and met him as a liberator.

Only Miletus and Halicarnassus resisted, and they were taken after fierce fighting. Alexander secured the conquered cities by various means: in some cases by attracting the democratic strata to his side, in others by supporting the priesthood. In some cases, he established family relations with former rulers. Yes, in Caria he managed to be adopted by Queen Hell.

In 333 BC. BC, Alexander’s army set out to conquer the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea – Syria. When Alexander and his army entered the intermountains of the Taurus Range, the so-called Gate of Syria, the entire huge Persian army led by King Darius III himself came to his rear. Near the town of Issa, Alexander managed a powerful onslaught of his phalanx and heavy cavalry to cause panic in the crowded Persian troops and win a brilliant victory. Darius fled, leaving his camp with all his property, shield and chariot. Darius’ family, who accompanied him, were taken prisoner.

This victory of Alexander prompted the Persian king to begin peace talks with him. Alexander responded with a proud message in which he demanded that Darius surrender unquestioningly and called himself "the ruler of all Asia."

Further successes of Alexander’s army – the capture of the Bible, Sidon and then, after a six-month siege, heavily fortified Tire – made him the ruler of Phenicia.

literature

Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar; Cromwell; Richelieu; Napoleon I; Bismarck: Biogr. narratives / NF Boldyrev (comp., general ed. and afterword). – Chelyabinsk: Ural, 1995. – 537p. Boz Patra. Alexander the Great’s Strategic Art: Out of Time: Lessons from the Builder of the Greatest Empire: Per. from English .. – Moscow: Olymp-Business, 2005. – XVIII, 249p. Spivak Igor Oleksandrovich. Alexander the Great and Zoroastrianism: author’s ref. dis … cand. ist. Science: 07.00. 02 / NAS of Ukraine; Institute of Oriental Studies. A. Krymskoho – K., 2007. – 18p. Tkachov Yuriy Gennadiyovych. A plot about Alexander the Great and his modifications in world literature: Dis … Cand. philol. Science: 10.01. 05 / Chernivtsi state. Univ. Yu. Fedkovich. – Chernivtsi, 1996 .– 186l. Uspensky Fedor Ivanovich. History of the Byzantine Empire: The period of the Macedonian dynasty (867-1057) / LV Litvinova (comp., Preparation of the text). – M .: Mysl, 1997. – 527p.

09/10/2012

Religion and culture of ancient India. Abstract

The earliest Indian civilization, known as the Indian, was created by the ancient local population of North India in the third millennium BC. is.

Its urban centers, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, maintained ties with Mesopotamia, Central and Central Asia. The inhabitants of the cities have achieved high mastery in various crafts, especially in the fine arts of small forms, the monuments of which (statuettes, engravings on seals) impress with sophistication and elegance. The cities had perfect water supply and sewerage systems, which was extremely rare at the time.

The real heyday of ancient Indian civilization reached the era of culture "Rigveda" – the time of creation of a collection of religious hymns, magic spells and ritual precepts created by priests of Aryan tribes, who appeared in India in the II millennium BC. BC after the so-called Great Migration. Just then, in the late II – early I millennium BC. BC, formed Brahmanism as a kind of synthesis of beliefs of Indo-Aryans (Vedism) and religious beliefs of the previous local pre-Aryan population of North India.

"Rigveda" became the theoretical basis for the formation of the original spiritual and ideological system of Brahmanism, and later Hinduism – the ideological basis of Indian culture.

In the era of the "Rigveda" began to take shape and a purely Indian phenomenon, as the caste system. In the Rigveda, for the first time, the moral and legal motives for the division of Indian society into four main classes were theoretically substantiated.

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