NASA mission enables first look inside Mars

NASA mission enables first look inside Mars

According to a study by the children’s aid organization Unicef, around 17 percent of young people worldwide had experienced corporal punishment within the previous month, either at school or at home. In the meantime, however, there are several studies that have proven the negative consequences of corporal punishment, write the scientists around Elgar. The effects are, for example, aggressive and antisocial behavior, mental problems, mental deficits, low self-esteem and physical abuse.

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For their investigation, Elgar and his colleagues used data from two large international studies from the past few years and supplemented them with some national surveys. A global initiative to end corporal punishment for children provides information on the legal regulations in the 88 countries examined. The scientists classified those adolescents as violent who stated that they had been involved in four or more physical confrontations in the past twelve months.

On average for all countries, 9.92 percent of male and 2.81 percent of female adolescents were regularly involved in brawls. However, there are very large differences between the countries: from 0.86 percent of girls in Costa Rica to 34.78 percent of boys in Samoa. If one takes such violence from countries without a ban on corporal punishment as 100 percent, then the proportion of violent male adolescents in countries with a ban was 69 percent. In the case of young women, it is only 42 percent.

Other factors such as gun laws, homicide rates, parenting programs, or wealth were examined as possible causes of the differences. However, they had little to no influence on the number of youngsters being beaten, partly to the surprise of the scientists: "We assumed that we would find fewer fights in wealthier countries", you write, "but in Cambodia, Myanmar and Malawi we found the lowest frequency of brawls among males, and at both ends of the spectrum a mix of low-income and high-income countries."

With the exception of Ghana and Zambia, male adolescents are always more often involved in brawls than women, the analysis further showed. Sometimes the difference is considerable. Why this is so is unknown, write the researchers. "It could be that males, compared to females, are more exposed to physical violence outside of school or are affected differently by corporal punishment from teachers." However, this still needs to be investigated.to kill a mockingbird argumentative essay

The researchers also emphasize that the study only shows a statistical relationship between prohibition of corporal punishment and flogging among teenagers. Cause-and-effect relationships have not yet been clarified. Corporal punishment of adolescents has not been allowed in Germany since 2000.

East Anglia (dpa) – Beer could become scarce and more expensive as a result of climate change. An international team of researchers reported in the trade journal that beer prices would roughly double around the world if temperatures were to rise unchecked "Nature Plants".

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Responsible is the frequent simultaneous occurrence of drought and heat periods during the growing season of barley, which would reduce the supply of the brewing ingredient.

"The world is facing numerous, life-threatening effects of climate change; Having to spend a little more money on beer may seem trivial in light of this"says study director Steven Davis from the University of California at Irvine (USA). "But there is definitely an intercultural A

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The attraction of beer, and not getting a cold beer at the end of an increasingly usually hot day, would make matters worse."

Davis and his team first determined the susceptibility of barley to extreme weather on the basis of historical data. Then they checked how often extreme heat and drought occur simultaneously under different future climate scenarios and how this affects the harvest volumes in 34 regions of the world. They take into account the development between 2010 and 2099. The result: On average, crop yields would decrease by 3 to 17 percent – depending on the scenario.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change also expects harvest losses in other areas, especially if global warming is only stopped at 2 instead of 1.5 degrees. This also applies to agriculture in Central Europe. In the summary of his latest report, he also specifically highlights reduced harvests of corn, rice, and wheat in parts of Asia, Africa and America.

In 2011, around 17 percent of the global barley harvest went into beer production, with extreme fluctuations between individual countries, the scientists of the new study report. In Brazil it is around 83 percent, in Australia only 9. As the harvest volume falls, the availability of barley for brewing is likely to fall disproportionately, the researchers write, since the grain would most likely be used for other, more important purposes, such as animal feed.

Under the most extreme climatic changes, countries such as Belgium, the Czech Republic or Germany threatened to lose barley availability by 27 to 38 percent. At the same time, this would drive the beer price up significantly, namely double it on average. According to the analyzes, a price increase of 15 percent can be expected even with a less pronounced rise in temperature.

For Germany, the scientists calculated a decrease in consumption between 0.74 and 2.55 billion liters annually, from the lowest to the highest assumed temperature increase. This would correspond to a decrease in per capita consumption of 18 to 63 half-liter bottles per year.

"One could argue that drinking less beer is not in itself particularly bad, it is actually good for your health"says Dabo Guan, one of the participating researchers from the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK. Nonetheless, there would be little doubt that the climate impact on the availability and price of beer would feel bad for millions of people around the world.

The researchers limit that their study has uncertainties and weaknesses. For example, no conceivable adjustments are taken into account that could stabilize harvest quantities even in times of climate change, such as new technologies or the use of adapted varieties. All estimates were based on current data on the world economy, population, agricultural practices, or eating habits. However, according to the researchers, the growth of the world population is likely to increase the demand for beer.

London (AP) – actress Keira Knightley (33, "pirates of the Caribbean") wants to raise the issue of birth and the associated taboos more honestly in public.

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In a recently published essay entitled "The weaker sex" (The weaker sex) she openly talks about the unadorned sides of the birth of her three-year-old daughter Edie in May 2015: "I remember the shit, the vomit, the blood, the stitches. I remember my battlefield." And then Knightley asks: "And am I the weaker sex?"

The contribution made by the online portal "Refinery29" has published in excerpts, has appeared in an audio book in which Knightley and prominent colleagues such as Emma Watson and Gemma Arterton speak out on feminist issues.

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Knightley talks about the birth and her daughter: "My vagina is torn open. You came out with your eyes open. Arms torn in the air. Screaming. They laid you on top of me, covered with blood and fruit smear, your head misshapen from the birth canal. Pulsating, panting, screaming". The British woman also describes the initial pain when breastfeeding.

One day after the birth of Knightley’s daughter, British Duchess Catherine gave birth to her second child, Princess Charlotte – and appeared in public just hours later. This is what the actress burned into her memory: "We get up and look at the television. She was released from the hospital seven hours later, her face is made up and her high heels are on. The face that the world wants to see."

Addressing the wife of Prince William, Knightley adds: "Look nice Look stylish, don’t show your battlefield, Kate. Seven hours after your struggle with life and death, seven hours after your body cracked open and bloody, screeching life came out. Don’t show it. Do not say it. Stand there with your girl, surrounded by a pack of male photographers". The "Guardian" and several other media reports.

Keira Knightley has been married to musician James Righton, the father of her daughter Edie, since 2013. The family lives in London.

Pau (AP) – France has abandoned two bears in the Pyrenees despite violent protests from shepherds. "It is done, you arrived in complete safety! Welcome Claverina and Sorita"Environment Minister François de Rugy announced on Twitter on Friday.

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The animals were released in the Béarn region in the west of the mountain range on the border with Spain. It was announced on Thursday that the first female bear was abandoned.

The French government wants to secure the brown bear population in this part of the Pyrenees. At last only two males lived there. According to official figures, there were 43 brown bears in the entire Pyrenees last year.

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Shepherds have been protesting the plans for months. After rumors about the imminent abandonment of the animals, opponents had positioned themselves on streets according to French media to block the transport. According to the regional newspaper "Sud Ouest" the first female bear is said to have been transported to her destination in a cage by helicopter on Thursday morning – the Ministry of the Environment had not commented on this upon request.

The French state compensates owners of herd animals that have been killed by bears or where it is considered possible. In 2017, money flowed to owners of 798 farm animals and 25 beehives in the Pyrenees.

Hamburg (dpa) – The people in Germany are according to the "Happiness atlas" continue to be satisfied with their lives – and that is also due to the good economic situation.

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According to the calculations for the study, life satisfaction has remained at a relatively high level this year, as shown by the study presented in Hamburg on Thursday.

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