The list of plants unconditionally recognized by official medicine is much shorter.

The list of plants unconditionally recognized by official medicine is much shorter.

And physicians and biologists have important reasons to help them make the right decision.

The two-faced water of lifeAnofeles S.Probably, apart from ethyl alcohol, there is no other substance on Earth that would cause such an ambiguous attitude. In some places he is cursed and even on pain of death is forbidden to consume drinks containing it. These curses can be double-edged – at least two great empires fell due to Prohibition. In other places, they practically pray for it, call it "eaux de vie", that is, "the water of life", and consider it a source of not only health, but also prosperity. Who is right? Oddly enough, both sides: alcohol can be not only harmful, but also beneficial. What modern drug researchers think about this can be gleaned from a recent review by Brendan Le Daré, Vincent Lagent and Tom Gickle of the first University of Rennes, Brittany. After going through the many publications contained in the PubMed database, they painted with large strokes a picture of the life of alcohol inside the human body.

WHAT WE EATYeast ferments in milkReznik N.L.Everything comes alive in the spring. Sweet juices appear in plants, milk in cows and sheep, and yeast in milk. And no wonder. Yeast is a well-known sweet tooth and any sugar is converted into alcohol. Alcohol is harmful to bacteria, but it makes people happy, therefore yeast fermentation products are appreciated in all parts of the world. So yeast took root in man-made environments: wine, beer and fermented dairy products (kefir, cheeses, koumiss).Naturally, we had to adapt to the new conditions. Brewer’s yeast, for example, has learned to metabolize the beer-specific sugar maltotriose, which is made up of three glucose molecules. Wine yeast has acquired resistance to copper sulfate and Bordeaux mixture, which are used to treat vineyards, and to sulphites, which preserve wine. These are significant changes, but they are nothing compared to what the milk yeast went for. For the love of milk, they actually changed their principles.

QUOTENot for Peter, but for the state given to PeterKonstantin DushenkoKonstantin Dushenko continues his research of famous quotes. In this issue we will talk about the expression "Not for Peter, but for the state given to Peter."

WHAT WE EATSulfur dioxide – toxin, preservative, regulatorAnina N.People always don’t like something. Those who have enough food are dissatisfied with its range, price or quality. Outraged consumers go to rallies demanding the removal of dyes and preservatives, especially the toxic sulfur dioxide SO2, known as the E220 food additive.

PANACEICGanoderma: red as blood, shiny as iceRuchkina N.Many would probably like to live forever, not knowing disease and old age. The Taoists believed that this was possible if certain rules were followed and certain magical herbs were taken. The lingzhi tree fungus was also among the herbs. In Japan it is called Reishi, and modern taxonomists call it Ganoderma lucidum – varnished Ganoderma.

FANTASTIC YEARAsimov and extraterrestrial lifeA. V. RechkinAs Isaac Asimov said: “The chemical basis of all varieties of life on Earth, and perhaps on other planets, should be protein-water, where the structure of proteins is governed by a complex system of nucleic acids. If we are destined to ever meet alien living creatures, then now it is impossible to predict whether they will be winged, green-skinned, decapod, egg-headed or two-tailed; but with a high degree of probability it can be argued that their chemical structure will be protein-water under the control of nucleic acids. "

FANTASTIC YEARBook of machinesSamuel ButlerIn this and subsequent issues of the magazine, we publish excerpts from the novel Erefon by Samuel Butler. They are strangely modern. Perhaps the matter is in the internal energy with which the text is filled. Or maybe it is that the prophets, inspired by an invisible and powerful spirit and who played, in particular, a fatal role in the fate of the unfortunate Erephonians, appear with enviable consistency in all eras, and a joyful willingness to follow them is inherent not only to the inhabitants of the fictional Erefon.

FANTASYAcademician Kraft’s ChoiceDmitry NikitinBreaking the thin ice with a resounding crunch, the yalbot climbed his nose onto the shore. From this frosty crunch, navigator Minin realized that navigation in the current year 1739 had only a couple of weeks left. Pulling the cocked hat deeper, which the salty wind tore from his head, the navigator jumped from the side onto the sand covered with snow. All around were chomping beats and noisy, polyphonic breathing. Fifty sailors and Cossacks hammered the water-washed precipice with shovels and crowbars. Burying his boots into the crumbling slope, Minin climbed up. He turned around and looked at the ships from above. Dubel-dinghy "Tobol" took refuge in the bay under the protection of the cape, but the sailing boat "Ob-Pochtalion" could not approach the shore due to the draft and stood more seaward, in the cold expanse of the Northern Ocean, swaying heavily on the blue waves. Minin thought about sending a skiff, transferring spare anchors from the Tobol to the Pochtalion. Then he remembered that the boats would soon be busy with something else.

NANOFANTASTICI loved youZhenya KrichTolik rushed towards the shabby vehicle, as if it could melt in the predawn haze. After catching his breath, he began to rummage through the pockets of his jacket in search of a wallet.- Don’t look, – the passenger of a very retirement kind creaked from the first seat. – They don’t pay with money here. And they do not go on gasoline.- And on what? – Tolik was surprised.


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CHEMOPHILIASecrets of the craftA. A. TrifonovWhat is it like to be the director of an academic institute in the capital, especially if you came from Nizhny Novgorod? What character traits are required to become a successful scientist? What is the future of organometallic chemistry? The editor-in-chief of the journal, Lyubov Nikolaevna Strelnikova, talks about this and many other things with the guest of the column, Alexander Anatolyevich Trifonov, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Director of the A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

RESULTSLatent tuberculosis is afraid of lightKosmachevskaya O. V.Researchers at the Stress of Microorganisms Laboratory have proposed an unexpected way to combat tuberculosis pathogens.

RESULTSLive five times longerKosmachevskaya O. V.Scientists from Nanjing University, in collaboration with scientists from the MDI Biological Laboratory and the Baka Institute for Aging Research, have managed to increase the lifespan of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans several times.

RESULTSBenefits of coffee for Parkinson’s diseaseKosmachevskaya O. V.Perhaps the favorite drink of many, coffee, which gives us a good mood and vigor, may become the prototype of a drug for treating tremors in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

RESULTSMolecular protection of nerve cellsKosmachevskaya O. V.Damage to myelin affects the functioning of the nervous system and becomes the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia. American researchers have discovered a molecular system that regulates myelination.

RESULTSMeal time affects the work of the biological clockKosmachevskaya O. V.Researchers from six scientific organizations have shown that eating high-calorie foods that are enjoyable disrupts normal eating habits and leads to obesity.

INVESTIGATIONElectronic smokeKhutoretskiy V.M.When the harm of tobacco smoking became not so obvious, it happened a long time ago, but socially unacceptable – the courts began to satisfy the multimillion-dollar claims of relatives of those who died from smoking against the manufacturers of tobacco and tobacco advertising – then electronic cigarettes appeared. To prevent the most harmful and carcinogenic components of tobacco smoke from entering the body, two different types of electronic devices are used: devices for heating tobacco (without burning, only to evaporate nicotine and aromas), we will only mention them in this article, and devices for heating liquid – electronic vaporizers, they are also electronic cigarettes, which will be discussed.

DISEASES AND MEDICINESZolgensma: $ 2 Million InfusionE.A kind of last year’s record: the most expensive drug of all times and peoples, the drug Zolgensma for gene therapy of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), entered the market. We figure out why they take such a huge amount of money.

QUOTEOur child will inherit your mind and my beautyKonstantin DushenkoKonstantin Dushenko continues his research of famous quotes. In this issue we will talk about the expression "Our child will inherit your mind and my beauty."

HYPOTHESESSense of substanceZhilin D. M.Someone always obtain complex syntheses with good yields, while others do not. And this is not always a question of age or education: the ability to accurately perform experiments and obtain results differs even among younger students who have just come to the laboratory. And some chemistry teachers make mistakes in the lab that make their hair stand on end. What is the matter here?

ELEMENT NO.Calcium facts and factsA.Where did the skeletons come from? How did calcium interfere with the origin of life? Do calcium supplements help maintain bone strength? Can calcium be harmful to health? How does calcium affect vascular calcification? How does vascular calcification occur? How do you fight vascular calcification? How will calcium fight viruses? What is the Japanese Paradox? How will calcium help fight global warming? How is calcium used in metallurgy? Where did Russian ultrapure calcium come from? Will calcium be the battery metal of the future?

TECHNOLOGIES AND NATURELiving brickAnofeles S.One of the most interesting areas of modern scientific thought is the creation of "living" building materials that can multiply and, if necessary, heal the resulting damage. This idea seems fantastic. However, work is underway, and here is one example – a freshly created living brick, the creation of engineers from the University of Colorado at Bouldar, led by Will Srubar III.

WHY NOT?Roquefort recyclerKomarov S.M.The blue mold of Roquefort cheese and its relatives is formed by mold fungi, which are called Penicillium roqueforti. It turns out that this mushroom, as well as some of its distant and close relatives, molds, responsible not only for cheese, but also for the destruction of food or rotting plants, have an amazing ability – they know how to inlay on marble. They are far from the stone-cutters; The works of molds are not particularly beautiful – they get sloppy yellowish spots on historical monuments, which lead restorers to despair, and ask the curious public: can mold grow on a stone too?

MEMOIRS OF IGNOBELPersistence in delusionEhrlich G.V.The history of science is full of stories about the most colorful personalities. A separate book could be written about them, but in this journal article we will confine ourselves to one of the winners of the Ignobel Prize. In 1993, the Ignobel Prize in Physics was awarded (posthumously) to Louis Kervran "for his claim that the calcium in the eggshell is formed by cold nuclear fusion." This is a very mild formulation, it was more correct to say: for a deeply pseudoscientific idea of ​​the transmutation of chemical elements in living organisms, which Kervran stubbornly promoted throughout his long life.

PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF SCIENCEThoughts of the simplestReznik N.L.Life is all about problems. Animals have to adapt to the surrounding conditions, look for food, while trying not to become it, ensure the continuation of the race, and they cope with all this only thanks to the ability to learn. Protozoa face the same difficulties and successfully overcome them. Does this mean that they, brainless, also learn? Of course, yes, although it is not clear how.

BIG CITY ECOLOGYJanuary flowersGeorgy Vinogradov“That year the autumn weather stood for a long time in the yard, waited for winter, waited for nature. Snow fell only in January, on the third on the night … ”Even taking into account the fact that Pushkin’s dates are in the old style and by now it would have been the 15th, this year surpassed the Onegin times by at least a week. In the European part of Russia, winter is unprecedentedly late.

ASK A TEACHEREvolution of geographyPerlov L. Ye.The more we learn about our planet, the more questions arise. And society is constantly giving rise to new problems that often require not just a solution, but also a forecast of the development of the territory for a greater or lesser time period. So today’s geography is not at the final stage of its existence, but, on the contrary, at the beginning of a new, next one.

PANACEICEphedra, ephedra, kuzmich grassRuchkina N.The list of medicinal plants is very long and continues to grow as globalization reaches out to the most remote corners of the world. Cunning manufacturers of nutritional supplements, having barely heard of any new product, immediately take it into circulation, without waiting for the results of clinical trials. The list of plants unconditionally recognized by official medicine is much shorter. And not the last place is occupied by ephedra.

PORTRAITSJohn Maynard Smith: Mathematics in the Service of DarwinismBagotsky S.V.January 6, 2020 marked the 100th anniversary of the birth of John Maynard Smith (1920-2004), one of the most influential evolutionary biologists of the 20th century, who mathematically combined genetics, natural selection and behavior.

FANTASYBucket with kittensKira Izmailova- Masha, – San Sanych said quietly, – Masha, how is that?The girl only raised her shoulders helplessly in response. Her eyes moistened, and San Sanych turned away – he could not stand women’s tears.

NANOFANTASTICResurrection of the laserVladis Keys- Your Eminence, on behalf of the editors of the journal "Science and Nature", let me express my deep gratitude that in the 2500th anniversary year you kindly agreed …- Thanks. Avoid officialdom, keep it simple. Want to talk about a laser?


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DISCUSSIONSOn the question of the effectiveness of the education systemV. V. PtushenkoTo talk about the effectiveness of any system, you need to have a measure of effectiveness. We are not talking about the problems of education in general, but only about its final result: how exactly is it to be assessed and what can be said based on the results of this assessment?

DISCUSSIONSOn the benefits of sensationsStrelnikova L.What is the quality of education? The answer to this question is possible only by understanding the purpose of school education. Indeed, why does a child go to school for eleven years? What and why do we teach at school and what do we want to get at the end?

SCIENTIFIC COMMENTATORHigher education: some mythsNamer L.Everyone will agree that something needs to be done with education. But what exactly? To try to determine what exactly, it would be good to understand what the situation is in it. But regarding the situation in education, there are several myths that are not related to reality. Let’s try to figure them out.

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